Given the open and accessible characteristics of ground transportation systems such as bus and rail, the unpredictability of terrorist attacks, the continual evolution of risk as terrorists learn and improve on their capabilities, and finite resources for security provisions, the industry faces a complex security problem that has existed for decades.

This assessment took into account that this facility may have considerable vulnerabilities because of its defined periods of use, designated access points, storage of sensitive personal information, minimal security forces, and numerous avenues of penetration and escape for attackers.

The study on which this assessment represents a step in that direction by providing a framework that security planners and policymakers can use to prepare for, and protect against, threats to and vulnerabilities of facility systems.

The intended audience of this assessment includes security planners, both experts working directly within facility systems and those who are responsible for facility security through their work in governmental or professional organizations, and policymakers.


ASIS International Facilities Physical Security Measures, 2008

Balog, John N., Peter N. Bromley, Jamie Beth Strongin, Annabelle Boyd, James Caton, and Don Corky Mitchell, Public Transportation Security: A Guide for Decision Makers, Vol. 2: K9 Units in Public Transportation, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, Transportation Cooperative Research Program report 86, 2002. As of November 14, 2007

Dun, Sarah, Joseph Wood, and Blair Martin, Decontamination, Cleanup, and Associated Issues for Site Contaminated with Chemical, Biological or Radiological Materials, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center, EPA/600/R-05/083, October 2005. As of November 14, 2007

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA 386-7, Integrating Human-Caused Hazards Into Mitigation Planning, September 2002

FEMA 426 Primer for Design of Commercial Buildings to Mitigate Terrorist Attacks SLG 101, Guide for All-Hazard Emergency Operations Planning, Chapter 6, Attachment G, Terrorism, April 2001

General Services Administration (GSA) PBS - P100, Facilities Standards for Public Buildings Service, November 2002

Jenkins, Brian Michael, and Larry N. Gersten, Protecting Public Surface Transportation Against Terrorism and Serious Crime: Continuing Research on Best Security Practices, San Jose, Calif.: Mineta Transportation Institute, San José State University, September 2001.

NCHRP Report 525 Surface Transportation Security Volume 1 Responding to Threats Transportation Research Board Chair: Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA Vice Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board

Quantitative Security Risk Assessment and Management for Railway Transportation Infrastructures Francesco Flammini, Andrea Gaglione, Nicola Mazzocca, and Concetta Pragliola ANSALDO STS - Ansaldo Segnalamento Ferroviario S.p.A. Via Nuova delle Brecce 260, Naples, Italy {francesco.flammini,concetta.pragliola} 2 Universita’ di Napoli Federico II Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica Via Claudio 21, Naples, Italy {frflammi,andrea.gaglione,nicola.mazzocca}

RAND Corporation Rail Safety Study Published 2007 by the RAND Corporation 1776 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 1200 South Hayes Street, Arlington, VA 22202-5050 4570 Fifth Avenue, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2665

Riley, K. Jack, Terrorism and Rail Security Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, CT-224, 2004. As of November 8, 2007:

Securing America's Passenger-Rail Systems Jeremy M. Wilson, Brian A. Jackson, Mel Eisman, Paul Steinberg, K. Jack Riley ISBN 978-0-8330-4117-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) RAND Corporation 1200 South Hayes Street Arlington, VA 22202-5050 703-413-1100, x5119

Teamsters Rail Conference, High Alert: Workers Warn of Security Gaps on Nation’s Railroads, Washington, D.C., 2005. As of November 19, 2007:

Transportation Research Board Surface Transportation Security, Report 525, 2004 Project 20-59(6) FY’02 ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 0-309-08803-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2004111186